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Titanium Oxide

Titanium Oxide

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Titanium is an element denoted by Ti with an atomic number of 22. It is a strong transition metal with a low density and is moderately resistant to corrosion. This happens when it is exposed to dilute hydrochloric acid and chlorine gas, as well as sulphuric acid. Oxygen is a very reactive element, forming oxides with other elements it reacts with. Its atomic number is 8 and is represented by the symbol O. It is an oxidizing agent and has a high level of electronegativity.

 Titanium oxides are titanium compounds with high oxidation states. This is due to their covalent bonds. Titanium oxide exists in three main states: Titanium dioxide (TiO2), Titanium (II) oxide (TiO or Titanium monoxide) and Titanium (III) oxide also referred to as dititanium trioxide (Ti2O3).

Titanium oxide, which is also referred to as Titanium (IV) dioxide is the most widespread compound of Titanium. It is used to manufacture white pigments also known as titanium white. This titanium compound exists in nature as common minerals such as anatase, brookite and its most widespread variety which is rutile. These minerals are found in magmatic rocks, hydrothermal veins and perovskite. This oxide exists as impurity in rubies and star sapphires, giving them their asterism. 

Titanium (II) oxide is a titanium compound which is inorganic and is usually prepared from the titanium metal and titanium dioxide. The acidic solution of this compound is usually stable for a short period of time and afterwards it decomposes and produces hydrogen.

Ti2+ + H+                         Ti3+ + ½ H2

Titanium (III) oxide is another titanium compound and is prepared through the reaction of the titanium metal and titanium dioxide at a high temperature. Normally, this compound is a semiconductor but at 200oC, it is transformed to a conductor.

The titanium element is used in the production of steel to decrease grain size as well as the manufacture of stainless steel used in kitchen cutlery. Most of the titanium ore is refined into titanium oxide and is used to produce paper, paints, plastic, toothpaste as well as in gemstones and cement. 

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